Solvency Ratios vs Liquidity Ratios Explained

solvency vs liquidity

Calculating the ratio is pretty simple division, but identifying the right income and liability numbers can be confusing if you’re not used to thinking about your business this way. All of this information should be contained in your financial reports like your income statement, cash flow statement, and your financial statement—provided you are on top of your bookkeeping. Your bookkeeper or accountant can certainly help you decipher your financial reports to make the calculation. When you analyze a company for its liquidity and solvency, three ratios are particularly key. The first two below gauge liquidity, while the third gauges solvency. Overall, Solvents Co. is in a dangerous liquidity situation, but it has a comfortable debt position.

Here the company’s total debt load is compared with its total asset base. This ratio is a measure of, out of the total asset base of a company, how much is financed through loans. A conservatively financed company is seen as a financially healthier company.


The amount is determined by dividing the overall liabilities by the entire capital. Solvency ratios are measures of the long-term financial health of a company. There’s no one correct ratio, but industry norms and trends matter to investors. If you’re a startup looking for outside investment, a virtual CFO can help you account for and calculate your ratios.

This is a measure of solvency, as it compares the company’s total value against its total liabilities. An especially high D/E ratio signals that it might have too much debt and might struggle to pays its bills; an especially low D/E ratio signals that it may not have invested enough in its own growth. This can signal a company that will stagnate and generate less value over the long run.

Financial Ratios:

This ratio measures how much funding comes from debt vs equity and can reveal how reliant a company is on credit. It’s calculated by dividing total debts by total equity; a lower ratio is better than a higher lawsuit definition and meaning ratio. The split between short and long-term obligations changes every month. All principals and interests payable in the next 12 months, from the current date, are treated as a short-term obligation.

Adam Hayes, Ph.D., CFA, is a financial writer with 15+ years Wall Street experience as a derivatives trader. Besides his extensive derivative trading expertise, Adam is an expert in economics and behavioral finance. Adam received his master’s in economics from The New School for Social Research and his Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin-Madison in sociology. He is a CFA charterholder as well as holding FINRA Series 7, 55 & 63 licenses. He currently researches and teaches economic sociology and the social studies of finance at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem.

Understanding Liquidity and Solvency Ratios

In real life, a company’s current liability includes salaries, vendor payments, etc in addition to the loan dues. There are two types of financial obligations, short-term and long-term obligations. Long-term obligations are non-current liabilities that mostly include long-term loans, deferred taxes, provisions, etc. Solvency and liquidity ratios are extremely important because these are the metrics that bankers, shareholders, and lenders will use to measure your company’s financial fitness. If your results are poor, as measured by one or more of these ratios, finding ways to improve the numbers can help you secure capital or financing. The quick ratio, sometimes called the acid-test ratio, falls between the current ratio and the cash ratio, in terms of strictness.

It seems like this rule will always lead to situations like this (although usually at smaller scales, hopefully). I can understand if banks don’t know what their assets are worth, but t-bonds have a known price. In this model of the problem, the least concerning shape of bank in the present environment is one that gets its lending profits from short-term loans to businesses that are risky, but manageably so. Let’s examine the different sorts of solvency ratios in more depth. Do you have plenty of debt but no trouble making interest payments? When companies issue equity or debt, their accounting needs become more complicated.

Current Ratio Calculator

Liquidity indicates how easily a company can meet its short-term debt obligations. A highly liquid company generally has a lot of cash or cash-equivalent assets on hand, because you generally can’t meet short-term operating needs by selling off pieces of equipment. As with solvency, accountants have developed a number of ratios to measure a company’s liquidity in different ways. Both liquidity and solvency gives snapshots of a company’s current financial health.

Is solvency part of liquidity?

But before we dive into those, let's quickly recap the difference between the two. Liquidity – the ability to meet short-term obligations, like money owed to suppliers. Solvency – the ability to meet long-term obligations, like longer-term debt payments. It's important when analysing a company to think about both.

Is solvency ratio the same as current ratio?

A company is considered solvent if its current ratio is greater than 1:1. A solvent company is able to achieve its goals of long-term growth and expansion while meeting its financial obligations. In its simplest form, solvency measures if a company is able to pay off its debts over the long term.

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